六合彩2013090

六合彩2013090

2017-05-23 10:38 六合彩2013090 编辑:朱晓明 大字

六合彩2013090

如何让移民融入德国社会?Merkel studies lessons of past influx to integrate

When it comes to managing Germany’s refugee surge, Chancellor Angela Merkel has pledged to learn from past immigration waves.

对于如何处理涌入德国的难民激增的问题,德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)承诺要从过去的移民潮中吸取教训。

She would do well to talk to 23-year-old Elvedin Goljica. The Kosovo-born student might seem a poster boy for integration. After arriving as an infant with his parents from war-torn Yugoslavia in 1992, he did well at school, attends a top university and has a prestigious foreign ministry internship.

她大可以跟Elvedin Goljica谈一谈。这名出生在科索沃、现年23岁的学生看起来也许是移民融入当地社会的典范。1992年尚在襁褓的他随父母从饱受战争蹂躏的南斯拉夫来到德国,他学业出色并进入顶尖大学就读,目前拥有一份光鲜的外交部实习工作。

But Mr Goljica argues that he suffers from the gap that still divides ethnic Germans from immigrants and their German-born children. For him it is mostly to do with xenophobic jokes, pointed questions about his name, and occasional encounters with rude officials.

但是,Goljica认为,本土德国人与移民及生于德国的移民子女之间仍然存在差距,这让他感到痛苦,主要的问题是那些仇外的玩笑、针对他的名字提出的尖锐问题以及偶尔遇到的粗鲁官员。

“If I say my name, people assume I am a foreigner. People ask me about Kosovo as if it were my home, but I have never lived there since I was a baby,” he says.

“如果我说出自己的名字,人们会认为我是外国人。人们会问我关于科索沃的事,就好像那是我故乡似的,但是我很小的时候就离开那里了,”他称。

He is so concerned that he has joined an online campaign called “I too am Germany” in which immigrant-origin young people have posted pictures to emphasise Germany’s multicultural reality. Others on the site talk about everything from racist insults to ticket inspectors picking on dark-skinned passengers.

为此他加入了网上一个名为“我也是德国人”(I too am Germany)的活动。在该活动中,移民出身的年轻人贴出了许多展现德国多元文化的照片。还有些网民讨论从种族攻击到检票员专门挑深肤色的乘客等种种现象。

Faced with the burden of taking in an estimated 1m migrants this year, the German government might be forgiven for paying less attention to the complaints of people already established. But Ms Merkel says those granted asylum must feel at home. She told the Bundestag this month: “We must learn from the experiences [of the past] . . . and, from the outset, put the highest priority on integration.”

鉴于德国今年预计将接收100万移民,德国政府较少关注现有移民的抱怨或许是可谅解的。但是,默克尔称,那些得到庇护的难民理应感觉像在家一样。她9月向德国联邦议院(Bundestag)称:“我们必须从(过去的)经历中吸取教训……而且从一开始就高度重视融入问题。”

Mr Goljica’s story is relevant because he was part of the last big wave of asylum-seekers to shelter in Germany — 350,000 refugees from the Yugoslav wars of the early 1990s. Confronted with the arrival of other eastern European migrants and the turmoil of German reunification, the government took a hard line over the Balkan refugees under rightwing political pressure.

之所以要提Goljica的故事,是因为他是上一波涌入德国寻求避难的大规模难民潮——上世纪90年代初逃离南斯拉夫战争涌入德国的35万难民——的其中一员。在同时还要面对其他东欧移民涌入以及两德统一引发动荡的背景下,德国政府当时在右翼政治压力的影响下对来自巴尔干半岛的难民采取了强硬政策。

Most had to return to Bosnia after the 1995 Dayton peace accord, with only about 40,000 remaining after 2000, says UNHCR, the UN refugee agency. Those who stayed struggled to be granted permanent residence, including the Goljica family. “For 10 years my father fought with officials,” said Mr Goljica.

联合国难民署(UNHCR)表示,1995年《代顿和平协定》(Dayton Peace Accords)签署后,多数人不得不返回了波斯尼亚,仅有4万人在2000年后仍然留在德国。那些留下来的难民很难获得永久居民身份,其中就包括Goljica一家。“我爸爸和官员争了10年,”Goljica称。

Bernd Mesovic, of Pro Asyl, a lobby group, says: “It was idiotic to push people out. Many of the best-qualified went to the US.”

游说团体“支持避难组织”(Pro Asyl)的贝恩德蔠索维奇(Bernd Mesovic)称:“把人们赶出去的做法是愚蠢的。很多最有资格的人都去了美国。”

The ex-Balkan refugees are among Germany’s best-integrated immigrants, with many benefiting from ties with relatives who had arrived in earlier decades, and community organisations. Former refugees include prizewinning writer Sasa Stanisic and football international Neven Subotic. Edmin Atlagic, president of IGBD, a leading Bosnian community group, says: “We have adapted well to Germany because we came from a secular pluralist society.”

前巴尔干半岛难民是德国最融入当地社会的移民群体之一,其中很多人都受益于比他们早几十年到达德国的亲戚以及社区机构的帮助。前难民中包括获奖作家萨沙斯塔尼希奇(Sasa Stanisic)以及国际足球明星内文苏博蒂奇(Neven Subotic)。主要的波斯尼亚社区团体IGBD的主席埃德明阿特拉吉奇(Edmin Atlagic)称:“我们已经很好地适应了德国,因为我们来自一个世俗的多元化的社会。”

Today’s Middle Eastern refugees are escaping civil war, like their Balkan predecessors, but they are arriving in a country that is much more welcoming than 25 years ago. The German economy, burdened in the 1990s by reunification costs, is powering ahead and companies are crying out for skilled workers. As Ms Merkel says, the country has money for supporting refugees.

就像过去来自巴尔干半岛的难民一样,如今的中东难民正在逃离内战,但是他们所抵达的国家比25年前更欢迎移民。上世纪90年代受到统一代价拖累的德国经济如今一马当先,企业迫切需要熟练工人。正如默克尔所言,德国现在有钱支持难民。

Also, successive governments have rejected past anti-immigration policies, when immigrants were seen as temporary visitors, and have backed integration. Since 2000 Berlin has passed laws to fight discrimination, support immigrants (via language lessons), ease rules for migrants’ German-born children to claim citizenship, and relax restrictions on asylum-seekers working.

此外,德国多届政府都反对过去的反移民政策(当时移民被视为临时访客),而支持融合。自2000年开始,柏林通过了一系列法律来消除歧视、(通过语言课)帮助移民、放宽在德国出生的移民子女申请公民身份的相关规定、以及放宽对寻求庇护者参加工作的限制。

Germany today has Europe’s largest immigrant population; over 10m out of a total of 81m. Immigrants’ earnings lag behind the native population’s by about 20 per cent, only a little more than in the UK and France. Further, an easy-access social security system means that Germany has only 28 per cent of foreign-born people in poverty, fewer than in Britain and France, according to the EU.

如今德国拥有欧洲数量最庞大的移民人口;其8100万人口中有超过800万是移民。移民的收入比德国本土人口低20%左右,这个比例仅略大于英国和法国。而且,据欧盟数据显示,容易参与的社会保障体系意味着德国仅有28%的外来移民处于贫困之中,低于英国和法国的比例。

But immigrant-origin Germans still lag behind natives in living standards, housing quality and education. According to the OECD’s Pisa education tests, immigrant-origin youngsters scored an average of 54 points below their non-immigrant classmates in mathematics in a 2012 study — a smaller gap than the 81-point difference of a decade earlier but bigger than the 34 OECD average.

但是,在生活水平、住房条件以及教育方面,移民出身的德国人仍然落后于本土德国人。根据经合组织(OECD)国际学生评估项目(Pisa)测试结果,在2012年的一项研究中,移民出身的青少年在数学上的平均得分比非移民的同学低54分,比10年前81分的差距有所减小,但是仍大于经合组织的平均差距(移民比非移民平均低34分)。

Refugee activists call for further action, including more provision of German lessons and affordable housing. But the ex-Balkan immigrants are disappointed that Syrian asylum-seekers are receiving residence rights of only three years. Conservative Germans say even this is too generous since refugees should be ready to leave when their home countries stabilise. But Mr Atlagic says: “People need to have the perspective of permanent residence from the outset. Only then will they will fully commit to integration in Germany.”

为难民奔走的活动人士呼吁政府采取进一步措施,包括提供更多德语课程以及可负担住房。但是前巴尔干半岛移民对来自叙利亚的寻求庇护者将仅获得3年居住权感到失望。德国人中的保守派甚至称,这太过宽宏大量了,难民应该随时准备好在其祖国局势稳定后离开德国。但是阿特拉吉奇称:“人们应该从一开始就抱有永久居留的想法。只有这样他们才会在德国尽力去融入社会。”

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